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Примеры и руководства Creating a sharded cluster

Creating a sharded cluster

Example on GitHub: sharded_cluster

In this tutorial, you get a sharded cluster up and running on your local machine and learn how to manage the cluster using the tt utility. To enable sharding in the cluster, the vshard module is used.

The cluster created in this tutorial includes 5 instances: one router and 4 storages, which constitute two replica sets.

Cluster topology

Before starting this tutorial:

The tt create command can be used to create an application from a predefined or custom template. For example, the built-in vshard_cluster template enables you to create a ready-to-run sharded cluster application.

In this tutorial, the application layout is prepared manually:

  1. Create a tt environment in the current directory by executing the tt init command.

  2. Inside the empty instances.enabled directory of the created tt environment, create the sharded_cluster directory.

  3. Inside instances.enabled/sharded_cluster, create the following files:

    • instances.yml specifies instances to run in the current environment.
    • config.yaml specifies the cluster’s configuration.
    • storage.lua contains code specific for storages.
    • router.lua contains code specific for a router.
    • sharded_cluster-scm-1.rockspec specifies external dependencies required by the application.

    The next Developing the application section shows how to configure the cluster and write code for routing read and write requests to different storages.

Open the instances.yml file and add the following content:

storage-a-001:
storage-a-002:
storage-b-001:
storage-b-002:
router-a-001:

This file specifies instances to run in the current environment.

This section describes how to configure the cluster in the config.yaml file.

Add the credentials configuration section:

credentials:
  users:
    replicator:
      password: 'topsecret'
      roles: [replication]
    storage:
      password: 'secret'
      roles: [sharding]

In this section, two users with the specified passwords are created:

  • The replicator user with the replication role.
  • The storage user with the sharding role.

These users are intended to maintain replication and sharding in the cluster.

Важно

It is not recommended to store passwords as plain text in a YAML configuration. Learn how to load passwords from safe storage such as external files or environment variables from Loading secrets from safe storage.

Add the iproto.advertise section:

iproto:
  advertise:
    peer:
      login: replicator
    sharding:
      login: storage

In this section, the following options are configured:

  • iproto.advertise.peer specifies how to advertise the current instance to other cluster members. In particular, this option informs other replica set members that the replicator user should be used to connect to the current instance.
  • iproto.advertise.sharding specifies how to advertise the current instance to a router and rebalancer.

Specify the total number of buckets in a sharded cluster using the sharding.bucket_count option:

sharding:
  bucket_count: 1000

Define the cluster’s topology inside the groups section. The cluster includes two groups:

  • storages includes two replica sets. Each replica set contains two instances.
  • routers includes one router instance.

Here is a schematic view of the cluster’s topology:

groups:
  storages:
    replicasets:
      storage-a:
        # ...
      storage-b:
        # ...
  routers:
    replicasets:
      router-a:
        # ...
  1. To configure storages, add the following code inside the groups section:

    storages:
      app:
        module: storage
      sharding:
        roles: [storage]
      replication:
        failover: manual
      replicasets:
        storage-a:
          leader: storage-a-001
          instances:
            storage-a-001:
              iproto:
                listen:
                - uri: '127.0.0.1:3301'
            storage-a-002:
              iproto:
                listen:
                - uri: '127.0.0.1:3302'
        storage-b:
          leader: storage-b-001
          instances:
            storage-b-001:
              iproto:
                listen:
                - uri: '127.0.0.1:3303'
            storage-b-002:
              iproto:
                listen:
                - uri: '127.0.0.1:3304'
    

    The main group-level options here are:

    • app: The app.module option specifies that code specific to storages should be loaded from the storage module. This is explained below in the Adding storage code section.
    • sharding: The sharding.roles option specifies that all instances inside this group act as storages. A rebalancer is selected automatically from two master instances.
    • replication: The replication.failover option specifies that a leader in each replica set should be specified manually.
    • replicasets: This section configures two replica sets that constitute cluster storages.
  2. To configure a router, add the following code inside the groups section:

    routers:
      app:
        module: router
      sharding:
        roles: [router]
      replicasets:
        router-a:
          instances:
            router-a-001:
              iproto:
                listen:
                - uri: '127.0.0.1:3300'
    

    The main group-level options here are:

    • app: The app.module option specifies that code specific to a router should be loaded from the router module. This is explained below in the Adding router code section.
    • sharding: The sharding.roles option specifies that an instance inside this group acts as a router.
    • replicasets: This section configures one replica set with one router instance.

The resulting config.yaml file should look as follows:

credentials:
  users:
    replicator:
      password: 'topsecret'
      roles: [replication]
    storage:
      password: 'secret'
      roles: [sharding]

iproto:
  advertise:
    peer:
      login: replicator
    sharding:
      login: storage

sharding:
  bucket_count: 1000

groups:
  storages:
    app:
      module: storage
    sharding:
      roles: [storage]
    replication:
      failover: manual
    replicasets:
      storage-a:
        leader: storage-a-001
        instances:
          storage-a-001:
            iproto:
              listen:
              - uri: '127.0.0.1:3301'
          storage-a-002:
            iproto:
              listen:
              - uri: '127.0.0.1:3302'
      storage-b:
        leader: storage-b-001
        instances:
          storage-b-001:
            iproto:
              listen:
              - uri: '127.0.0.1:3303'
          storage-b-002:
            iproto:
              listen:
              - uri: '127.0.0.1:3304'
  routers:
    app:
      module: router
    sharding:
      roles: [router]
    replicasets:
      router-a:
        instances:
          router-a-001:
            iproto:
              listen:
              - uri: '127.0.0.1:3300'

  1. Open the storage.lua file and create a space using the box.schema.space.create() function:

    box.schema.create_space('bands', {
        format = {
            { name = 'id', type = 'unsigned' },
            { name = 'bucket_id', type = 'unsigned' },
            { name = 'band_name', type = 'string' },
            { name = 'year', type = 'unsigned' }
        },
        if_not_exists = true
    })
    

    Note that the created bands spaces includes the bucket_id field. This field represents a sharding key used to partition a dataset across different storage instances.

  2. Create two indexes based on the id and bucket_id fields:

    box.space.bands:create_index('id', { parts = { 'id' }, if_not_exists = true })
    box.space.bands:create_index('bucket_id', { parts = { 'id' }, unique = false, if_not_exists = true })
    
  3. Define the insert_band function that inserts a tuple into the created space:

    function insert_band(id, bucket_id, band_name, year)
        box.space.bands:insert({ id, bucket_id, band_name, year })
    end
    
  4. Define the get_band function that returns data without the bucket_id value:

    function get_band(id)
        local tuple = box.space.bands:get(id)
        if tuple == nil then
            return nil
        end
        return { tuple.id, tuple.band_name, tuple.year }
    end
    

The resulting storage.lua file should look as follows:

box.schema.create_space('bands', {
    format = {
        { name = 'id', type = 'unsigned' },
        { name = 'bucket_id', type = 'unsigned' },
        { name = 'band_name', type = 'string' },
        { name = 'year', type = 'unsigned' }
    },
    if_not_exists = true
})
box.space.bands:create_index('id', { parts = { 'id' }, if_not_exists = true })
box.space.bands:create_index('bucket_id', { parts = { 'id' }, unique = false, if_not_exists = true })

function insert_band(id, bucket_id, band_name, year)
    box.space.bands:insert({ id, bucket_id, band_name, year })
end

function get_band(id)
    local tuple = box.space.bands:get(id)
    if tuple == nil then
        return nil
    end
    return { tuple.id, tuple.band_name, tuple.year }
end

  1. Open the router.lua file and load the vshard module as follows:

    local vshard = require('vshard')
    
  2. Define the put function that specifies how the router selects the storage to write data:

    function put(id, band_name, year)
        local bucket_id = vshard.router.bucket_id_mpcrc32({ id })
        vshard.router.callrw(bucket_id, 'insert_band', { id, bucket_id, band_name, year })
    end
    

    The following vshard router functions are used:

  3. Create the get function for getting data:

    function get(id)
        local bucket_id = vshard.router.bucket_id_mpcrc32({ id })
        return vshard.router.callro(bucket_id, 'get_band', { id })
    end
    

    Inside this function, vshard.router.callro() is called to get data from a storage identified the generated bucket ID.

  4. Finally, create the insert_data() function that inserts sample data into the created space:

    function insert_data()
        put(1, 'Roxette', 1986)
        put(2, 'Scorpions', 1965)
        put(3, 'Ace of Base', 1987)
        put(4, 'The Beatles', 1960)
        put(5, 'Pink Floyd', 1965)
        put(6, 'The Rolling Stones', 1962)
        put(7, 'The Doors', 1965)
        put(8, 'Nirvana', 1987)
        put(9, 'Led Zeppelin', 1968)
        put(10, 'Queen', 1970)
    end
    

The resulting router.lua file should look as follows:

local vshard = require('vshard')

function put(id, band_name, year)
    local bucket_id = vshard.router.bucket_id_mpcrc32({ id })
    vshard.router.callrw(bucket_id, 'insert_band', { id, bucket_id, band_name, year })
end

function get(id)
    local bucket_id = vshard.router.bucket_id_mpcrc32({ id })
    return vshard.router.callro(bucket_id, 'get_band', { id })
end

function insert_data()
    put(1, 'Roxette', 1986)
    put(2, 'Scorpions', 1965)
    put(3, 'Ace of Base', 1987)
    put(4, 'The Beatles', 1960)
    put(5, 'Pink Floyd', 1965)
    put(6, 'The Rolling Stones', 1962)
    put(7, 'The Doors', 1965)
    put(8, 'Nirvana', 1987)
    put(9, 'Led Zeppelin', 1968)
    put(10, 'Queen', 1970)
end

Open the sharded_cluster-scm-1.rockspec file and add the following content:

package = 'sharded_cluster'
version = 'scm-1'
source  = {
    url = '/dev/null',
}

dependencies = {
    'vshard == 0.1.26'
}
build = {
    type = 'none';
}

The dependencies section includes the specified version of the vshard module. To install dependencies, you need to build the application.

In the terminal, open the tt environment directory. Then, execute the tt build command:

$ tt build sharded_cluster
   • Running rocks make
No existing manifest. Attempting to rebuild...
   • Application was successfully built

This installs the vshard dependency defined in the *.rockspec file to the .rocks directory.

To start all instances in the cluster, execute the tt start command:

$ tt start sharded_cluster
   • Starting an instance [sharded_cluster:storage-a-001]...
   • Starting an instance [sharded_cluster:storage-a-002]...
   • Starting an instance [sharded_cluster:storage-b-001]...
   • Starting an instance [sharded_cluster:storage-b-002]...
   • Starting an instance [sharded_cluster:router-a-001]...

After starting instances, you need to bootstrap the cluster as follows:

  1. Connect to the router instance using tt connect:

    $ tt connect sharded_cluster:router-a-001
       • Connecting to the instance...
       • Connected to sharded_cluster:router-a-001
    
  2. Call vshard.router.bootstrap() to perform the initial cluster bootstrap:

    sharded_cluster:router-a-001> vshard.router.bootstrap()
    ---
    - true
    ...
    

To check the cluster’s status, execute vshard.router.info() on the router:

sharded_cluster:router-a-001> vshard.router.info()
---
- replicasets:
    storage-b:
      replica:
        network_timeout: 0.5
        status: available
        uri: storage@127.0.0.1:3304
        name: storage-b-002
      bucket:
        available_rw: 500
      master:
        network_timeout: 0.5
        status: available
        uri: storage@127.0.0.1:3303
        name: storage-b-001
      name: storage-b
    storage-a:
      replica:
        network_timeout: 0.5
        status: available
        uri: storage@127.0.0.1:3302
        name: storage-a-002
      bucket:
        available_rw: 500
      master:
        network_timeout: 0.5
        status: available
        uri: storage@127.0.0.1:3301
        name: storage-a-001
      name: storage-a
  bucket:
    unreachable: 0
    available_ro: 0
    unknown: 0
    available_rw: 1000
  status: 0
  alerts: []
...

The output includes the following sections:

  • replicasets: contains information about storages and their availability.
  • bucket: displays the total number of read-write and read-only buckets that are currently available for this router.
  • status: the number from 0 to 3 that indicates whether there are any issues with the cluster. 0 means that there are no issues.
  • alerts: might describe the exact issues related to bootstrapping a cluster, for example, connection issues, failover events, or unidentified buckets.

  1. To insert sample data, call the insert_data() function on the router:

    sharded_cluster:router-a-001> insert_data()
    ---
    ...
    

    Calling this function distributes data evenly across the cluster’s nodes.

  2. To get a tuple by the specified ID, call the get() function:

    sharded_cluster:router-a-001> get(4)
    ---
    - [4, 'The Beatles', 1960]
    ...
    
  3. To insert a new tuple, call the put() function:

    sharded_cluster:router-a-001> put(11, 'The Who', 1962)
    ---
    ...
    

To check how data is distributed across the cluster’s nodes, follow the steps below:

  1. Connect to any storage in the storage-a replica set:

    $ tt connect sharded_cluster:storage-a-001
       • Connecting to the instance...
       • Connected to sharded_cluster:storage-a-001
    

    Then, select all tuples in the bands space:

    sharded_cluster:storage-a-001> box.space.bands:select()
    ---
    - - [3, 11, 'Ace of Base', 1987]
      - [4, 42, 'The Beatles', 1960]
      - [6, 55, 'The Rolling Stones', 1962]
      - [9, 299, 'Led Zeppelin', 1968]
      - [10, 167, 'Queen', 1970]
      - [11, 70, 'The Who', 1962]
    ...
    
  2. Connect to any storage in the storage-b replica set:

    $ tt connect sharded_cluster:storage-b-001
       • Connecting to the instance...
       • Connected to sharded_cluster:storage-b-001
    

    Select all tuples in the bands space to make sure it contains another subset of data:

    sharded_cluster:storage-b-001> box.space.bands:select()
    ---
    - - [1, 614, 'Roxette', 1986]
      - [2, 986, 'Scorpions', 1965]
      - [5, 755, 'Pink Floyd', 1965]
      - [7, 998, 'The Doors', 1965]
      - [8, 762, 'Nirvana', 1987]
    ...
    
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