Security hardening guide | Enterprise

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Security hardening guide

Security hardening guide

This guide explains how to enhance security in your Tarantool Enterprise cluster using built-in features and provides general recommendations on security hardening. If you need to perform a security audit of a Tarantool Enterprise cluster, refer to the security checklist.

Tarantool Enterprise does not provide a dedicated API for security control. All the necessary configuration can be done via an administrative console or initialization code.

Built-in security features

Tarantool Enterprise has the following built-in security features:

And backup functionality:

The following sections describe the features and provide links to detailed documentation.

Authentication

Tarantool Enterprise supports password-based authentication and allows for two types of connections:

  • via an administrative console and
  • over a binary port for read and write operations and procedure invocation.

For more information on authentication and connection types, see the security section of the Tarantool manual.

In addition, Tarantool provides the following functionality:

  • sessions – states which associate connections with users and make Tarantool API available to them after authentication,
  • authentication triggers which execute actions on authentication events.
  • third-party (external) authentication protocols and services such as LDAP or Active Directory – supported in the web interface, but unavailable on the binary-protocol level.

Access control

Tarantool Enterprise provides the means for administrators to prevent unauthorized access to the database and to certain functions.

Tarantool recognizes:

  • different users (guests and administrators),
  • privileges associated with users,
  • roles (containers for privileges) granted to users;

And divides system space into:

  • _user space to store usernames and hashed passwords for authentication,
  • _priv space to store privileges for access control.

For more information, see the access control section of the Tarantool manual.

Users who create objects (spaces, indexes, users, roles, sequences, and functions) in the database become their owners and automatically acquire privileges for what they create. For more information, see the owners and privileges section of the Tarantool manual.

Audit log

Tarantool Enterprise has a built-in audit log that records events such as:

  • authentication successes and failures;
  • connection closures;
  • creation, removal, enabling, and disabling of users;
  • changes of passwords, privileges, and roles;
  • denials of access to database objects;

Audit log contains:

  • timestamps,
  • usernames of users who performed actions,
  • event types (e.g. user_create, user_enable, disconnect, etc),
  • descriptions.

Audit log has two configuration parameters:

  • audit_log = <PATH_TO_FILE> which is similar to the log parameter; it tells Tarantool to record audit events to a specific file;
  • audit_nonblock which is similar to the log_nonblock parameter.

For more information on logging, see the following:

Access permissions to audit log files can be set up as to any other Unix file system object – via chmod.

Traffic encryption

Since version 2.10.0, Tarantool Enterprise has the built-in support for using SSL to encrypt the client-server communications over binary connections, that is, between Tarantool instances in a cluster or connecting to an instance via connectors using net.box.

Tarantool uses the OpenSSL library that is included in the delivery package. Please note that SSL connections use only TLSv1.2.

Configuration

To configure traffic encryption, you need to set the special URI parameters for a particular connection. The parameters can be set for the following box.cfg options and nex.box method:

Below is the list of the parameters. In the next section, you can find details and examples on what should be configured on both the server side and the client side.

  • transport – enables SSL encryption for a connection if set to ssl. Default value is plain which means the encryption is off. If the parameter is not set, the encryption is off either. Other encryption-related parameters can be used only if the transport = 'ssl' is set.

    Example:

    c = require('net.box').connect({
        uri = 'localhost:3301',
        params = {transport = 'ssl'}
    })
    
  • ssl_key_file – a path to a private SSL key file. Mandatory for a server. For a client, it’s mandatory if the ssl_ca_file parameter is set for a server; otherwise, optional.

  • ssl_cert_file – a path to an SSL certificate file. Mandatory for a server. For a client, it’s mandatory if the ssl_ca_file parameter is set for a server; otherwise, optional.

  • ssl_ca_file – a path to a trusted certificate authorities (CA) file. Optional. If not set, the peer won’t be checked for authenticity.

    Both a server and a client can use the ssl_ca_file parameter:

    • If it’s on the server side, the server verifies the client.
    • If it’s on the client side, the client verifies the server.
    • If both sides have the CA files, the sever and the client verifies each other.
  • ssl_ciphers – a colon-separated (:) list of SSL cipher suites the connection can use. See the Supported ciphers section for details. Optional. Note that the list is not validated: if a cipher suite is unknown, Tarantool just ignores it, doesn’t establish the connection and writes to the log that no shared cipher found.

    Configuration example:

    box.cfg{ listen = {
        uri = 'localhost:3301',
        params = {
            transport = 'ssl',
            ssl_key_file = '/path_to_key_file',
            ssl_cert_file = '/path_to_cert_file',
            ssl_ciphers = 'HIGH:!aNULL'
        }
    }}
    
Supported ciphers

Tarantool Enterprise supports the following cipher suites:

  • ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384
  • ECDHE-RSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384
  • DHE-RSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384
  • ECDHE-ECDSA-CHACHA20-POLY1305
  • ECDHE-RSA-CHACHA20-POLY1305
  • DHE-RSA-CHACHA20-POLY1305
  • ECDHE-ECDSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256
  • ECDHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256
  • DHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256
  • ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-SHA384
  • ECDHE-RSA-AES256-SHA384
  • DHE-RSA-AES256-SHA256
  • ECDHE-ECDSA-AES128-SHA256
  • ECDHE-RSA-AES128-SHA256
  • DHE-RSA-AES128-SHA256
  • ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-SHA
  • ECDHE-RSA-AES256-SHA
  • DHE-RSA-AES256-SHA
  • ECDHE-ECDSA-AES128-SHA
  • ECDHE-RSA-AES128-SHA
  • DHE-RSA-AES128-SHA
  • AES256-GCM-SHA384
  • AES128-GCM-SHA256
  • AES256-SHA256
  • AES128-SHA256
  • AES256-SHA
  • AES128-SHA
  • GOST2012-GOST8912-GOST8912
  • GOST2001-GOST89-GOST89

Tarantool Enterprise static build has the embeded engine to support the GOST cryptographic algorithms. If you use these algorithms for traffic encryption, specify the corresponding cipher suite in the ssl_ciphers parameter, for example:

box.cfg{ listen = {
    uri = 'localhost:3301',
    params = {
        transport = 'ssl',
        ssl_key_file = '/path_to_key_file',
        ssl_cert_file = '/path_to_cert_file',
        ssl_ciphers = 'GOST2012-GOST8912-GOST8912'
    }
}}

For detailed information on SSL ciphers and their syntax, refer to OpenSSL documentation.

Using environment variables

The URI parameters for traffic encryption can also be set via environment variables. For example:

export TT_LISTEN="localhost:3301?transport=ssl&ssl_cert_file=/path_to_cert_file&ssl_key_file=/path_to_key_file"

For details, refer to the Tarantool configuration reference.

Server-client configuration details

When configuring the traffic encryption, you need to specify the necessary parameters on both the server side and the client side. Below you can find the summary on the options and parameters to be used and examples of configuration.

Server side

  • Is configured via the box.cfg.listen option.
  • Mandatory URI parameters: transport, ssl_key_file and ssl_cert_file.
  • Optional URI parameters: ssl_ca_file and ssl_ciphers.

Client side

  • Is configured via the box.cfg.replication option (see details) or net_box_object.connect().

Parameters:

  • If the server side has only the transport, ssl_key_file and ssl_cert_file parameters set, on the client side, you need to specify only transport = ssl as the mandatory parameter. All other URI parameters are optional.
  • If the server side has also the ssl_ca_file parameter set, on the client side, you need to specify transport, ssl_key_file and ssl_cert_file as the mandatory parameters. Two other parameters – ssl_ca_file and ssl_ciphers – are optional.
Configuration examples

Suppose, there is a master-replica set with two Tarantool instances:

  • 127.0.0.1:3301 – master (server)
  • 127.0.0.1:3302 – replica (client).

Examples below show the configuration related to connection encryption for two cases: when the trusted certificate authorities (CA) file is not set on the server side and when it does. Only mandatory URI parameters are mentioned in these examples.

  1. Without CA
  • 127.0.0.1:3301 – master (server)

    box.cfg{
        listen = {
            uri = '127.0.0.1:3301',
            params = {
                transport = 'ssl',
                ssl_key_file = '/path_to_key_file',
                ssl_cert_file = '/path_to_cert_file'
            }
        }
    }
    
  • 127.0.0.1:3302 – replica (client)

    box.cfg{
        listen = {
            uri = '127.0.0.1:3302',
            params = {transport = 'ssl'}
        },
        replication = {
            uri = 'username:password@127.0.0.1:3301',
            params = {transport = 'ssl'}
        },
        read_only = true
    }
    
  1. With CA
  • 127.0.0.1:3301 – master (server)

    box.cfg{
        listen = {
            uri = '127.0.0.1:3301',
            params = {
                transport = 'ssl',
                ssl_key_file = '/path_to_key_file',
                ssl_cert_file = '/path_to_cert_file',
                ssl_ca_file = '/path_to_ca_file'
            }
        }
    }
    
  • 127.0.0.1:3302 – replica (client)

    box.cfg{
        listen = {
            uri = '127.0.0.1:3302',
            params = {
                transport = 'ssl',
                ssl_key_file = '/path_to_key_file',
                ssl_cert_file = '/path_to_cert_file'
            }
        },
        replication = {
            uri = 'username:password@127.0.0.1:3301',
            params = {
                transport = 'ssl',
                ssl_key_file = '/path_to_key_file',
                ssl_cert_file = '/path_to_cert_file'
            }
        },
        read_only = true
    }
    

Recommendations on security hardening

This section lists recommendations that can help you harden the cluster’s security.

Encrypting traffic

Since version 2.10.0, Tarantool Enterprise has the built-in support for using SSL to encrypt the client-server communications over binary connections, that is, between Tarantool instances in a cluster. For details on enabling SSL encryption, see the Traffic encryption section of this guide.

In case the built-in encryption is not set for particular connections, consider the following security recommendations:

  • setting up connection tunneling, or
  • encrypting the actual data stored in the database.

For more information on data encryption, see the crypto module reference.

The HTTP server module provided by rocks does not support the HTTPS protocol. To set up a secure connection for a client (e.g., REST service), consider hiding the Tarantool instance (router if it is a cluster of instances) behind an Nginx server and setting up an SSL certificate for it.

To make sure that no information can be intercepted ‘from the wild’, run Nginx on the same physical server as the instance and set up their communication over a Unix socket. For more information, see the socket module reference.

Firewall configuration

To protect the cluster from any unwanted network activity ‘from the wild’, configure the firewall on each server to allow traffic on ports listed in network requirements.

If you are using static IP addresses, whitelist them, again, on each server as the cluster has a full mesh network topology. Consider blacklisting all the other addresses on all servers except the router (running behind the Nginx server).

Tarantool Enterprise does not provide defense against DoS or DDoS attacks. Consider using third-party software instead.

Data integrity

Tarantool Enterprise does not keep checksums or provide the means to control data integrity. However, it ensures data persistence using a write ahead log, regularly snapshots the entire data set to disk, and checks the data format whenever it reads the data back from the disk. For more information, see the data persistence section of the Tarantool manual.