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Examples for box.index

Examples for box.index

This example will work with the sandbox configuration described in the preface. That is, there is a space named tester with a numeric primary key. The example function will:

  • select a tuple whose key value is 1000;
  • raise an error if the tuple already exists and already has 3 fields;
  • Insert or replace the tuple with:
    • field[1] = 1000
    • field[2] = a uuid
    • field[3] = number of seconds since 1970-01-01;
  • Get field[3] from what was replaced;
  • Format the value from field[3] as yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm:ss.ffff;
  • Return the formatted value.

The function uses Tarantool box functions box.space…select, box.space…replace, fiber.time, uuid.str. The function uses Lua functions os.date() and string.sub().

function example()
  local a, b, c, table_of_selected_tuples, d
  local replaced_tuple, time_field
  local formatted_time_field
  local fiber = require('fiber')
  table_of_selected_tuples = box.space.tester:select{1000}
  if table_of_selected_tuples ~= nil then
    if table_of_selected_tuples[1] ~= nil then
      if #table_of_selected_tuples[1] == 3 then
        box.error({code=1, reason='This tuple already has 3 fields'})
      end
    end
  end
  replaced_tuple = box.space.tester:replace
    {1000,  require('uuid').str(), tostring(fiber.time())}
  time_field = tonumber(replaced_tuple[3])
  formatted_time_field = os.date("%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S", time_field)
  c = time_field % 1
  d = string.sub(c, 3, 6)
  formatted_time_field = formatted_time_field .. '.' .. d
  return formatted_time_field
end

… And here is what happens when one invokes the function:

tarantool> box.space.tester:delete(1000)
---
- [1000, '264ee2da03634f24972be76c43808254', '1391037015.6809']
...
tarantool> example(1000)
---
- 2014-01-29 16:11:51.1582
...
tarantool> example(1000)
---
- error: 'This tuple already has 3 fields'
...

Here is an example that shows how to build one’s own iterator. The paged_iter function is an “iterator function”, which will only be understood by programmers who have read the Lua manual section Iterators and Closures. It does paginated retrievals, that is, it returns 10 tuples at a time from a table named “t”, whose primary key was defined with create_index('primary',{parts={1,'string'}}).

function paged_iter(search_key, tuples_per_page)
  local iterator_string = "GE"
  return function ()
  local page = box.space.t.index[0]:select(search_key,
    {iterator = iterator_string, limit=tuples_per_page})
  if #page == 0 then return nil end
  search_key = page[#page][1]
  iterator_string = "GT"
  return page
  end
end

Programmers who use paged_iter do not need to know why it works, they only need to know that, if they call it within a loop, they will get 10 tuples at a time until there are no more tuples.

In this example the tuples are merely printed, a page at a time. But it should be simple to change the functionality, for example by yielding after each retrieval, or by breaking when the tuples fail to match some additional criteria.

for page in paged_iter("X", 10) do
  print("New Page. Number Of Tuples = " .. #page)
  for i = 1, #page, 1 do
    print(page[i])
  end
end

Example showing submodule box.index

This submodule may be used for spatial searches if the index type is RTREE. There are operations for searching rectangles (geometric objects with 4 corners and 4 sides) and boxes (geometric objects with more than 4 corners and more than 4 sides, sometimes called hyperrectangles). This manual uses the term rectangle-or-box for the whole class of objects that includes both rectangles and boxes. Only rectangles will be illustrated.

Rectangles are described according to their X-axis (horizontal axis) and Y-axis (vertical axis) coordinates in a grid of arbitrary size. Here is a picture of four rectangles on a grid with 11 horizontal points and 11 vertical points:

           X AXIS
           1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10  11
        1
        2  #-------+                                           <-Rectangle#1
Y AXIS  3  |       |
        4  +-------#
        5          #-----------------------+                   <-Rectangle#2
        6          |                       |
        7          |   #---+               |                   <-Rectangle#3
        8          |   |   |               |
        9          |   +---#               |
        10         +-----------------------#
        11                                     #               <-Rectangle#4

The rectangles are defined according to this scheme: {X-axis coordinate of top left, Y-axis coordinate of top left, X-axis coordinate of bottom right, Y-axis coordinate of bottom right} – or more succinctly: {x1,y1,x2,y2}. So in the picture … Rectangle#1 starts at position 1 on the X axis and position 2 on the Y axis, and ends at position 3 on the X axis and position 4 on the Y axis, so its coordinates are {1,2,3,4}. Rectangle#2’s coordinates are {3,5,9,10}. Rectangle#3’s coordinates are {4,7,5,9}. And finally Rectangle#4’s coordinates are {10,11,10,11}. Rectangle#4 is actually a “point” since it has zero width and zero height, so it could have been described with only two digits: {10,11}.

Some relationships between the rectangles are: “Rectangle#1’s nearest neighbor is Rectangle#2”, and “Rectangle#3 is entirely inside Rectangle#2”.

Now let us create a space and add an RTREE index.

tarantool> s = box.schema.space.create('rectangles')
tarantool> i = s:create_index('primary', {
         >   type = 'HASH',
         >   parts = {1, 'unsigned'}
         > })
tarantool> r = s:create_index('rtree', {
         >   type = 'RTREE',
         >   unique = false,
         >   parts = {2, 'ARRAY'}
         > })

Field#1 doesn’t matter, we just make it because we need a primary-key index. (RTREE indexes cannot be unique and therefore cannot be primary-key indexes.) The second field must be an “array”, which means its values must represent {x,y} points or {x1,y1,x2,y2} rectangles. Now let us populate the table by inserting two tuples, containing the coordinates of Rectangle#2 and Rectangle#4.

tarantool> s:insert{1, {3, 5, 9, 10}}
tarantool> s:insert{2, {10, 11}}

And now, following the description of RTREE iterator types, we can search the rectangles with these requests:

tarantool> r:select({10, 11, 10, 11}, {iterator = 'EQ'})
---
- - [2, [10, 11]]
...
tarantool> r:select({4, 7, 5, 9}, {iterator = 'GT'})
---
- - [1, [3, 5, 9, 10]]
...
tarantool> r:select({1, 2, 3, 4}, {iterator = 'NEIGHBOR'})
---
- - [1, [3, 5, 9, 10]]
  - [2, [10, 11]]
...

Request#1 returns 1 tuple because the point {10,11} is the same as the rectangle {10,11,10,11} (“Rectangle#4” in the picture). Request#2 returns 1 tuple because the rectangle {4,7,5,9}, which was “Rectangle#3” in the picture, is entirely within{3,5,9,10} which was Rectangle#2. Request#3 returns 2 tuples, because the NEIGHBOR iterator always returns all tuples, and the first returned tuple will be {3,5,9,10} (“Rectangle#2” in the picture) because it is the closest neighbor of {1,2,3,4} (“Rectangle#1” in the picture).

Now let us create a space and index for cuboids, which are rectangle-or-boxes that have 6 corners and 6 sides.

tarantool> s = box.schema.space.create('R')
tarantool> i = s:create_index('primary', {parts = {1, 'unsigned'}})
tarantool> r = s:create_index('S', {
         >   type = 'RTREE',
         >   unique = false,
         >   dimension = 3,
         >   parts = {2, 'ARRAY'}
         > })

The additional option here is dimension=3. The default dimension is 2, which is why it didn’t need to be specified for the examples of rectangle. The maximum dimension is 20. Now for insertions and selections there will usually be 6 coordinates. For example:

tarantool> s:insert{1, {0, 3, 0, 3, 0, 3}}
tarantool> r:select({1, 2, 1, 2, 1, 2}, {iterator = box.index.GT})

Now let us create a space and index for Manhattan-style spatial objects, which are rectangle-or-boxes that have a different way to calculate neighbors.

tarantool> s = box.schema.space.create('R')
tarantool> i = s:create_index('primary', {parts = {1, 'unsigned'}})
tarantool> r = s:create_index('S', {
         >   type = 'RTREE',
         >   unique = false,
         >   distance = 'manhattan',
         >   parts = {2, 'ARRAY'}
         > })

The additional option here is distance='manhattan'. The default distance calculator is ‘euclid’, which is the straightforward as-the-crow-flies method. The optional distance calculator is ‘manhattan’, which can be a more appropriate method if one is following the lines of a grid rather than traveling in a straight line.

tarantool> s:insert{1, {0, 3, 0, 3}}
tarantool> r:select({1, 2, 1, 2}, {iterator = box.index.NEIGHBOR})

More examples of spatial searching are online in the file R tree index quick start and usage.