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space_object:update() | Tarantool
 
Submodule box.space / space_object:update()
Submodule box.space / space_object:update()

space_object:update()

space_object:update()

object space_object
space_object:update(key, {{operator, field_identifier, value}, ...})

Update a tuple.

The update function supports operations on fields — assignment, arithmetic (if the field is numeric), cutting and pasting fragments of a field, deleting or inserting a field. Multiple operations can be combined in a single update request, and in this case they are performed atomically and sequentially. Each operation requires specification of a field identifier, which is usually a number. When multiple operations are present, the field number for each operation is assumed to be relative to the most recent state of the tuple, that is, as if all previous operations in a multi-operation update have already been applied. In other words, it is always safe to merge multiple update invocations into a single invocation, with no change in semantics.

Possible operators are:

  • + for addition. values must be numeric, e.g. unsigned or decimal
  • - for subtraction. values must be numeric
  • & for bitwise AND. values must be unsigned numeric
  • | for bitwise OR. values must be unsigned numeric
  • ^ for bitwise XOR. values must be unsigned numeric
  • : for string splice.
  • ! for insertion of a new field.
  • # for deletion.
  • = for assignment.

Possible field_identifiers are:

  • Positive field number. The first field is 1, the second field is 2, and so on.
  • Negative field number. The last field is -1, the second-last field is -2, and so on. In other words: (#tuple + negative field number + 1).
  • Name. If the space was formatted with space_object:format(), then this can be a string for the field ‘name’.
Parameters:
  • space_object (space_object) – an object reference
  • key (scalar/table) – primary-key field values, must be passed as a Lua table if key is multi-part
  • operator (string) – operation type represented in string
  • field_identifier (number-or-string) – what field the operation will apply to.
  • value (lua_value) – what value will be applied
Return:
  • the updated tuple
  • nil if the key is not found
Rtype:

tuple or nil

Possible errors: it is illegal to modify a primary-key field.

Complexity factors: Index size, Index type, number of indexes accessed, WAL settings.

Thus, in the instruction:

s:update(44, {{'+', 1, 55 }, {'=', 3, 'x'}})

the primary-key value is 44, the operators are '+' and '=' meaning add a value to a field and then assign a value to a field, the first affected field is field 1 and the value which will be added to it is 55, the second affected field is field 3 and the value which will be assigned to it is 'x'.

Example:

Assume that initially there is a space named tester with a primary-key index whose type is unsigned. There is one tuple, with field[1] = 999 and field[2] = 'A'.

In the update:
box.space.tester:update(999, {{'=', 2, 'B'}})
The first argument is tester, that is, the affected space is tester. The second argument is 999, that is, the affected tuple is identified by primary key value = 999. The third argument is =, that is, there is one operation — assignment to a field. The fourth argument is 2, that is, the affected field is field[2]. The fifth argument is 'B', that is, field[2] contents change to 'B'. Therefore, after this update, field[1] = 999 and field[2] = 'B'.

In the update:
box.space.tester:update({999}, {{'=', 2, 'B'}})
the arguments are the same, except that the key is passed as a Lua table (inside braces). This is unnecessary when the primary key has only one field, but would be necessary if the primary key had more than one field. Therefore, after this update, field[1] = 999 and field[2] = 'B' (no change).

In the update:
box.space.tester:update({999}, {{'=', 3, 1}})
the arguments are the same, except that the fourth argument is 3, that is, the affected field is field[3]. It is okay that, until now, field[3] has not existed. It gets added. Therefore, after this update, field[1] = 999, field[2] = 'B', field[3] = 1.

In the update:
box.space.tester:update({999}, {{'+', 3, 1}})
the arguments are the same, except that the third argument is '+', that is, the operation is addition rather than assignment. Since field[3] previously contained 1, this means we’re adding 1 to 1. Therefore, after this update, field[1] = 999, field[2] = 'B', field[3] = 2.

In the update:
box.space.tester:update({999}, {{'|', 3, 1}, {'=', 2, 'C'}})
the idea is to modify two fields at once. The formats are '|' and =, that is, there are two operations, OR and assignment. The fourth and fifth arguments mean that field[3] gets OR’ed with 1. The seventh and eighth arguments mean that field[2] gets assigned 'C'. Therefore, after this update, field[1] = 999, field[2] = 'C', field[3] = 3.

In the update:
box.space.tester:update({999}, {{'#', 2, 1}, {'-', 2, 3}})
The idea is to delete field[2], then subtract 3 from field[3]. But after the delete, there is a renumbering, so field[3] becomes field[2] before we subtract 3 from it, and that’s why the seventh argument is 2, not 3. Therefore, after this update, field[1] = 999, field[2] = 0.

In the update:
box.space.tester:update({999}, {{'=', 2, 'XYZ'}})
we’re making a long string so that splice will work in the next example. Therefore, after this update, field[1] = 999, field[2] = 'XYZ'.

In the update:
box.space.tester:update({999}, {{':', 2, 2, 1, '!!'}})
The third argument is ':', that is, this is the example of splice. The fourth argument is 2 because the change will occur in field[2]. The fifth argument is 2 because deletion will begin with the second byte. The sixth argument is 1 because the number of bytes to delete is 1. The seventh argument is '!!', because '!!' is to be added at this position. Therefore, after this update, field[1] = 999, field[2] = 'X!!Z'.

For more usage scenarios and typical errors see Example: using data operations further in this section.

Since Tarantool 2.3 a tuple can also be updated via JSON paths.